The patient lays on the cardiac catheterization table with the image intensifier
and camera above the chest and the x-ray source tube below the table, as
shown below. The camera can be made to pivot towards the left and right
of the patient. This is known as the left anterior oblique (LAO) and right
anterior oblique (RAO) views, respectively.
The camera is also able to pivot towards (cranial) and away (caudal) from
the patients head. All this is achieved with the help of a control handle
that is situated near the hand of the operator.
Controls are also provided to raise and lower the table, raise and
lower the camera, change the magnification, increase and decrease the size
of the shutters, etc.
The camera takes cineangiographic (cine) images on 35 mm x-ray
film as the ostium of the coronary artery is engaged and contrast material
is injected to opacify the artery. The online fluoro also allows visualization
of the coronaries at any time without having to film it. Fluoroscopy is
used to position the table and camera and during "test" injection of contrast.
The two pedals that activate fluoroscopy (fluoro) and cine filming
lie on the floor, near the operator's feet. each one is turned on by stepping
on it. For example, the operator will first step on the fluoro pedal and
confirm a position (during test injection of a small amount of contrast)
and then switch over and press the cine pedal during the coronary hand